Condition Alters Elderly Brain Function
(Ivanhoe Newswire) - Leukoaraiosis describes diffuse white matter abnormalities on CT or MRI brain scans, and has been considered to be a normal part of the aging process. But new research shows otherwise.
Researchers at the Mayo Clinic now say the common condition leukoaraiosis is not a harmless part of the aging process, but rather a disease that alters brain function in the elderly.
"There has been a lot of controversy over these commonly identified abnormalities on MRI scans and their clinical impact," Kirk M. Welker, M.D., assistant professor of radiology in the College of Medicine at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., was quoted as saying.
Leukoaraiosis, also called small vessel ischemia and often referred to as unidentified bright objects or "UBOs" on brain scans, is a condition in which diseased blood vessels lead to small areas of damage in the white matter of the brain. The lesions are common in the brains of people over the age of 60, although the amount of disease varies among individuals.
"We know that aging is a risk factor for leukoaraiosis, and we suspect that high blood pressure may also play a role," Dr. Welker added. Dr. Welker's team performed functional MRI (fMRI) scans on cognitively normal elderly participants recruited from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging between 2006 and 2010. In 18 participants, the amount of leukoaraiosis was a moderate 25 milliliters, and in 18 age-matched control participants, the amount of disease was less than five milliliters.
The patients were imaged in an MRI scanner as they performed a semantic decision task by identifying word pairs and a visual perception task that involved differentiating straight from diagonal lines. fMRI is a special type of magnetic resonance imaging that measures metabolic changes in an active part of the brain.
Although both groups performed the tasks with similar success, the fMRI scans revealed different brain activation patterns between the two groups. Compared to members of the control group, patients with moderate levels of leukoaraiosis had atypical activation patterns, including decreased activation in areas of the brain involved in language processing during the semantic decision task and increased activation in the visual-spatial areas of the brain during the visual perception task.
"White matter damage affects connections within the brain's language network, which leads to an overall reduction in network activity. Our results add to a growing body of evidence that this is a disease we need to pay attention to," Welker was quoted as saying. "Leukoaraiosis is not a benign manifestation of aging but an important pathologic condition that alters brain function."
Source: Radiological Society Of Northern America, August 2012